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In the United States millions of piles are used to support residential, commercial, and transportation structures. There are, however, some problems associated with the use of traditional piling. It is now more commonly required to install piles on corrosive and contaminated soils, due to industrialization. The durability of concrete, corrosion of steel, and deterioration of wood are serious hindrances to
construction in these environments, particularly where high concentrations of sulfides or chlorides are present. Composite materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers can offer performance advantages when compared to steel, concrete or timber.

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