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An integral-abutment bridge is designed to transfer the temperature and traffic-induced horizontal loading
to its foundation by the use of a continuous joint between the superstructure and its abutment. The
connection eliminates the need for bearings, which have been a source of expensive rehabilitation, and
accommodates the horizontal movement through a flexible stub-abutment supported on piles. Although
integral abutments have been used successfully by many states, a nationally accepted design methodology
does not exist for their design and construction. Instead, each highway department depends on the
experience of its engineers to push the design envelope.